Most common Brain Tumor | Top 9 different Brain Tumor
Types of Brain Tumors
There are two types of brain tumours: primary and metastatic. Primary brain tumours start in the brain and can spread to other parts of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord). They only spread to a few other areas of the body in rare cases. Primary brain tumours come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some are aggressive and represent an urgent threat to the patient’s health, while others are slow-growing and do not require immediate treatment.
Metastatic brain tumours are cancers that have migrated to the brain from another organ. All brain cancers are categorised for therapy based on the kind of cell the tumour resembles, the tumor’s location, whether it is well-circumscribed or diffuse, the tumor’s grade (WHO grading system), and, increasingly, the tumor’s molecular or genetic characteristics.
The most prevalent primary brain tumour, meningioma, accounts for more than 30% of all brain tumours. Meningiomas start in the meninges, the three outer layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain immediately under the skull.
Meningiomas strike women more frequently than males. Meningiomas are noncancerous, slow-growing tumours that account for around 85% of all meningiomas. Although almost all meningiomas are benign, some might be persistent and recur following therapy.
2. Pituitary Adenoma
The most frequent kind of pituitary tumour is adenoma, which is a type of tumour that develops in gland tissues. Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours that arise from the pituitary gland. Adenomas account for around 10% of all primary brain tumours. They have the potential to induce eyesight and endocrinological issues. Adenomas are benign and curable with surgery and/or treatment, which is good news for patients.
Acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas) are benign tumours of the nerve from the ear to the brain that develop slowly. Acoustic neuromas make up less than 8% of all primary brain tumours. They grow on the nerve sheath — the coating that surrounds the nerve fibres — and frequently cause hearing loss in middle-aged people. The trigeminal nerve can potentially be affected by schwannomas. Trigeminal schwannomas are a kind of schwannomas that are less frequent than vestibular schwannomas and can induce face discomfort.
4. Pineal Gland
The pineal gland is a deep brain gland that produces melatonin, a sleep-regulating hormone. Pineal gland tumours can be benign or cancerous. Pineocytoma and pineoblastoma are two types of pineal tumours.
The pituitary gland is where pituitary tumours, also known as pituitary adenomas, begin. Almost all of them are harmless (not cancer). They can, however, lead to other significant health issues. These issues can arise as a result of hormone overproduction or underproduction, or if tumours grow large enough to push against sensitive tissues around the pituitary gland, such as the optic nerves.
The pituitary gland is located near the base of the brain and is roughly the size of a pea. The gland is regarded as the “master gland” because it produces growth hormone (GH), which is crucial for children’s growth and adult metabolism, as well as prolactin, which is vital for breast milk production. The pituitary gland also produces hormones that regulate the thyroid, adrenals, and gonads, among other glands (ovaries in women and testes in men).
Pituitary Tumors Types
Pituitary tumours can affect up to 15% to 20% of adults, although tumours that require treatment are less common and usually go undiagnosed.
Pituitary tumours can be divided into two categories.
Pituitary Functioning Tumors: These tumours cause the body to produce excessive amounts of specific hormones. The following hormones may be overproduced by pituitary tumours:
Prolactin: is a hormone that increases women’s breast development and milk production. A prolactinoma is a pituitary tumour that produces too much of this hormone. The most common kind of pituitary tumour is this one.
Craniopharyngiomas are tumours that develop near the pituitary gland in the brain, and they mostly affect children and babies. A craniopharyngioma can cause a child’s growth to be inhibited since the pituitary gland releases chemicals necessary for growth and metabolism. It is also possible that the patient’s vision will be harmed. These tumours form when cells from early embryonic development are left behind.
Embryonal tumours are low-grade neoplasms that mimic cell components seen in the central nervous system during development. Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumour in children, and it requires intensive treatment, including chemotherapy and irradiation. Because these tumours have a proclivity for spreading through the cerebrospinal fluid, extensive irradiation may be required.
Ependymomas arise from the cells that border the chambers of the brain or the spinal canal. The majority of these tumours are harmless. Ependymomas are more common in youngsters and form near the base of the brain.
Ependymomas can cause enlargement of the optic nerve, involuntary, jerky eye movement known as nystagmus, and neck discomfort, in addition to headache and vomiting.
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumour, and they look like glia, which are supporting cells found in the brain parenchyma. Gliomas are divided into two types: astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. These tumours can be classified as low or high grade based on their aggressiveness potential, and include the extremely malignant glioblastoma, which has a high proliferative rate under the microscope, as well as other aggressive characteristics including microvascular proliferation and necrosis.
Malignant tumours are extremely unstable tumours that develop in aberrant cells and move through the bloodstream, circulatory system, and lymphatic system. Malignant cells lack the chemical adhesion molecules that benign tumours have to keep them anchored to the initial growth location.
Many cancer causes are widely acknowledged by the medical profession, whereas others are not. Obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol use, poor nutrition, pollution, heavy metal exposure, and home pollutants are just a few of the factors that might cause cancer in the body.
The kind, size, and location of your brain tumour determine the therapy options. Your neurosurgeon will sit down with you and go through all of your choices as you work together to establish a treatment plan, which might include a biopsy, surgical removal, or non-invasive brain tumour treatment like chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
If brain surgery is necessary, we employ cutting-edge technology and computer-assisted navigation in our minimally invasive procedures. This technology allows you to stay in the hospital for less time, allowing you to resume your usual activities as soon as feasible.
Following your operations, you will get supportive and rehabilitative care as part of your treatment plan. We are here to help you if you have a neurological problem. Banner Health’s broad network of brain health, imaging, and physical therapy specialists can provide you with the most up-to-date therapies.